The following 5
Plenary Lectures will be held during the EAC2017
(listed in alphabetic order of the speakers):
Health Effects of Atmospheric Particulate Matter
The health effects of atmospheric particulate matter have received an enormous amount of attention for the last few decades. Important research questions have been addressed such as:
A => Are all particle components equally toxic?
B => Are all particle sizes equally relevant?
C => Are there thresholds for chronic and/or acute effects of particles on health?
D => Can we identify subgroups in the population which are more vulnerable to effects of airborne particles than others?
E => Which are the main diseases associated with exposure to atmospheric particulate matter?
F => What is the contribution to the Global Burden of Disease?
The presentation will highlight examples of answers to all of these questions, and will summarize state-of-the-art review reports on the health effects of atmospheric particulate matter.
Professor of Environmental Epidemiology and Director
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University
Academic education in Environmental Sciences at the Wageningen University, Netherlands, 1971-1979.
1979-2000, Department of Environmental Health of the Wageningen University, assistant professor, associate professor (1986), full Professor (1993).
Ph.D. Environmental Epidemiology (Wageningen University, May 17, 1985).
1986/1987, sabbatical at Harvard School of Public Health.
1995, main organizer of the annual ISEE/ISEA conference in the Netherlands. President of ISEE for 2000 and 2001.
Since early 1990s, coordinator of five EU funded studies (PEACE, TRAPCA, AIRALLERG, AIRNET, ESCAPE) in the field of air pollution, allergy and health. Partner in many other international collaborative studies. PI on three studies funded by the US Health Effects Institute.
Since 2000, Prof. Brunekreef is Professor of Environmental Epidemiology in both the Faculties of Veterinary Medicine, and the Faculty of Medicine at the Utrecht University.
On several occasions, Bert Brunekreef served as advisor on national and international panels in the field of environmental health, including the Dutch National Health Council, of which he is a member, WHO and the US EPA.
Bert Brunekreef is co-author of more than 500 peer reviewed journal articles in the field of environmental epidemiology and exposure assessment. In recent years, he received the ISEE John Goldsmith award (2007), the European Lung Foundation Award (2007), an honorary doctorate of the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium (2008), the Heineken Prize for Environmental Sciences (2008), and an Academy Professorship of the Dutch Royal Academy of Sciences (2009) to which he also was elected to become a member in 2009.
How do changes in regional aerosol particle emissions affect climate in other regions of the world
Emissions of aerosol particles and their precursors have drastically changed over time; they have increased due to fossil fuel burning during periods of strong economic growth and decreased as air quality regulations have been put in place to reduce air pollution. How do these rapid spatial and temporal changes in emissions affect regional and global climate? What will happen in the future? Does the climate respond differently to a forcing from aerosol particles compared to a forcing from greenhouse gases? To address these questions, results from coupled ocean-atmosphere climate simulations with interactive aerosol microphysics will be presented. The importance of considering air pollution for climate mitigation policies will also be discussed.
Annica Ekman received her PhD in meteorology in 2001 at Stockholm University, Sweden. After a two year post-doctoral fellowship period at MIT, USA, she returned to Stockholm and became an associate professor in 2009, a full professor in 2015 and is now also the deputy head of the Department of Meteorology. During 2011-2012, she was a visiting scientist at the Institute for Atmosphere and Climate Science, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland. She is currently the president of the EGU Atmospheric Sciences Division and has been a member of several international research organization boards such as the International Commission on Clouds and Precipitation and the Nordic Society of Aerosol Research. Her main research interest is to understand how aerosol particles affect clouds and climate, involving problems ranging from local to global scales. In her research she mainly uses numerical modelling but she collaborates closely with experts on in-situ measurements and satellite retrievals to better understand the different processes and linkages in the climate system.
Nucleation Theory: Are We Nearly There Yet?
The long complicated history of a typical aerosol particle in the atmosphere, or in other environments, is often initiated by a nucleation event, the formation of the particle from gas phase precursors. The development of theory to describe the process of nucleation also has a long and complicated history, going back to the early days of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Decades have passed since the first models were proposed, based on ideas of barrier crossing through thermal fluctuation, so are we nearly there yet? How close are we to definitive tools that would predict the rate of formation of fresh aerosol from a given vapour mixture? In this talk I shall reflect on the present state of affairs, particularly in the light of developments in the computation of the free energy of molecular clusters, and in recent advances in nonequilibrium statistical physics.
Ian Ford studied Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge and then obtained a DPhil in Particle Physics at the University of Oxford. His research in aerosol physics began at the UK Atomic Energy Authority in 1987 where he moved up a few orders of magnitude in size to study the nucleation of airborne nanoparticles from supersaturated vapours with Charles Clement. He joined the Department of Physics and Astronomy at UCL in 1996 to take up an academic position and has been there ever since. Interest in nucleation phenomena has taken him on a (directed) random walk through other areas of modelling, including biomolecular applications, and has provided an avenue from which to survey, and contribute to, the broader field of nonequilibrium statistical physics. He received the Smoluchowski Prize from GAeF in 1999, he was President of the Aerosol Society of the UK and Ireland for a time in the 2000s, and he chaired the European Aerosol Conference in Manchester in 2011.
In Situ Diagnostics in the Gas-Phase Synthesis of Functional Nanomaterials
Gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles allows to generate high purity materials with well-controlled properties in continuous flows that provide a chance for scale-up to industrial scale. Nanoparticles with well-controlled composition and narrow size distributions are of interest for a wide variety of applications from coatings to electronics to functional materials, e.g., for energy conversion and storage. For the synthesis of materials with desired properties, however, the reaction conditions must be well controlled and the underlying processes understood. The decomposition kinetics of vaporized metal organic compounds, as well as the reaction mechanisms of the decomposition, cluster formation and the potential interaction with flame chemistry is a prerequisite for a targeted synthesis of materials. Kinetics experiments are carried out in shock tube reactors with optical and mass spectrometric detection of intermediate and product species, and in flow reactors with laser-based detection of particle size, temperature and species concentration and via molecular-beam mass spectrometry. This presentation will give an overview over the various diagnostics approaches that aim at providing a complete picture of the formation of nanoparticle aerosols.
Understanding and controlling combustion processes and the synthesis of nanomaterials in the gas phase is at the center of the research performed by Christof Schulz and his group. Nanoparticles with tailored properties are synthesized in flames, plasmas, and wall-heated reactors in the Nanomaterials Synthesis team. The work is aimed at the development of new materials, in particular for use in energy technologies. Research also includes laser-based techniques for in situ measurements of concentration, temperature, droplet and particle size, as well as velocity in reactive flows.
Christof Schulz studied Chemistry at the University of Karlsruhe from 1988–94. He received his PhD at the Physical Chemistry Institute at the University of Heidelberg in 1997. From 1997–2004 he headed the group on “Laser diagnostics in combustion processes” in the same institute where he also received his Habilitation in 2002. During this time he spent several subsequent research periods at Stanford University, from 2000–02 as Visiting Scholar and from 2002–04 as Consulting Associate Professor. In 2004 he assumed the Chair for Combustion and Gas Dynamics at the University of Duisburg-Essen where he currently leads a group of 45 scientists.
In 2014, Christof Schulz received the Leibniz Prize of the German Research Foundation, DFG. In 1999 he received the Freudenberg Award of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and the 1. Prize of the BMW Scientific Award. He is editor-in-chief of the journal Progress in Energy and Combustion Science and member of the editorial boards of Applied Physics B, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute and Powder Technology. From 2007–10 he was deputy director and 2010–15 director of the Center for NanoIntegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE).
Submicron Molecular Aggregates: Formation, Structure, Photochemistry
Submicron-sized aerosol particles built from molecules that are held together by weak intermolecular interactions are involved in a multitude of atmospheric processes. Yet, their transient character makes their characterization difficult, even under controlled laboratory conditions. The lecture describes new experimental approaches targeted at a better fundamental understanding of the formation, structure, and photochemistry of submicron-sized aerosol particles. For example, the direct experimental observation of the very first steps in aerosol formation, i. e. gas phase nucleation and cluster growth, provides unique experimental test data for nucleation theories. Single droplet photoacoustic studies reveal pronounced finite-size effects in the photokinetics in the submicron range, with potential importance for global atmospheric chemistry. Finally, photoemission experiments with submicron droplets allow us to describe transport properties of electrons, which are a prerequisite for a better understanding of electron-induced reactions.
Ruth Signorell received her MSc and PhD degrees in the field of molecular spectroscopy from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH). She started her aerosol research in 2002 as an Assistant Professor at the Georg-August University Goettingen, Germany. Between 2005 and 2012, she was first Associate Professor and later Full Professor at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. In 2012, she returned to Switzerland to take up a position as a Full Professor for Physical Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences at ETH Zuerich. Her research interests focus on spectroscopic and mass spectrometric studies of fundamental processes in aerosol particles and clusters that are held together by weak intermolecular forces. Among the awards she has received are the 2005 Werner Award of the Swiss Chemical Society, an A. P. Sloan Fellowship in 2007 (USA), and an E. W. R. Steacie Memorial Fellowship in 2011 (Canada). She is co-editor of a book on “Fundamentals and Applications in Aerosol Spectroscopy” and co-founder of the aerosol conference “Towards a Molecular Level Understanding of Atmospheric Aerosols”. Ruth Signorell is Associate Editor of PCCP responsible for aerosol research.